Astrophotography by Anthony Ayiomamitis

Star Trail Image Gallery

One of the most basic types of astrophotography and yet equally stunning is that involving star trails, particularly around the celestial poles or immediately due east or west. In addition to capturing the motion of stars around the north pole which are circumpolar and, hence, never rise or set, we also have the ability to capture seasonal constellations and stars in such photos, thus allowing for different opportunities during different seasons. Star trail photos also provide direct evidence that our planet rotates and does so at a rate of 15 per hour. Furthermore, by studying the arc for a particular star, especially as far away from the pole as possible, one can indirectly estimate the length of the (total) exposure which often ranges from seven to eight hours in duration and is totally dependent on the end of astronomical twilight one evening and its onset the following morning.

Many star photos are centered on Polaris, a double star system which represents our quickest means to locating the north celestial pole, for it lies less than 1.0 from it, and is an excellent starting point for the polar alignment of a telescope (and finding your way home if you are lost!). Due to the extended length of the typical exposures involved, the best film for such work is Kodak Elite Chrome (ISO 100) whose reciprocity failure is nearly zero or Fujichrome Velvia and Provia (ISO 50 and 100) emulsions with equally impressive curves! With respect to equipment, it is rudimentary, for a camera with extended exposure capibility is required along with a firm tripod and shutter release and locking cable. It is also preferable that the camera used have a mechanical shutter so that battery consumption and power does not become an issue during mid-exposure. The final requirement is a location with dark skies - the darker the better so that the trails and their colouration will be as bright and contrasty as possible - with, preferably, an interesting foreground which can be used to enrich the final result.

Note: The fighter jet in the foreground below is Northrop's F-5A Freedom Fighter on display at the western grounds of the 111th Squadron of the Hellenic Air Force stationed in central Greece. The F-5 Freedom Fighter is a twin-engine aircraft which saw service with many militaries across the world including Greece's Hellenic Air Force. It is a single-pilot aircraft measuring 14.7 meters in length, 4.1 meters tall and with a wingspan of 8.13 meters across. It can achieve a maximum speed of Mach 1.63 (1,740 km/h) with a combat and ferry range of 891 km and 3,723 km respectively. Nearly 2250 units were produced between 1959 and 1987 including various variants such as the F-5A below which was a light fighter jet originally without radar capability but with radar capability following upgrade. The F5-A which first arrived in Greece in 1965 (55 units) has the ability to carry a wide variety of armament including two 20mm revolving cannons, up to four AIM-9 Sidewinder short-range air-to-air missiles and/or AGM-65 Maverick air-to-surface missiles as well as a wide variety of rockets and air-to-ground unguided, cluster, napalm and laser-guided bombs.

Image Details
Freedom Fighter at Night
Imaging Details
Proper Star Name:

Bayer Letter:
Ursae Minoris

Tycho Catalog:
TYC 4628-237-1

SAO Catalog:
SAO 308

2290 +/- 282 x Sun

431 +/- 26 light yrs

RA / Dec:
02h 39m 31s /
+89 17' 39"

B-V Color Index:
+0.570 mag

Sep 3-4, 2019
21:16 - 02:02 UT+3

Almyrou (Magnisias),
Thessalia, Greece

Canon EOS 6D
Baader BCF2 Filter
Canon EOS EF 28mm/f1.8 USM
    @ f8.0

286 min (525 x 30 sec) (RGB)
005 min (010 x 30 sec) (Dark)
ISO 800
JPG Fine Image Format
5472x3648 Image Size
Custom White Balance
Manual Mode
Continuous Servo Mode

Sequator V1.4
Photoshop CS5

Dark Frame Reduction
Layers and Lighten
Unsharp Masking
JPG Compression